How to build a concrete ground slab?Tweet
Building a project involves various stages including initial preparation of the client's brief, scheduling and research, specifications and construction development. Building structures are often created through efficient design and construction. This process involves the use of a team of professionals, usually architectures, building and construction engineers, who work together to design and construct the structures in accordance to the structural plan.
Plans, designs and changes occur throughout a project, therefore there must be a unified desire for communication, understanding and agreement. Before plans are put forward a review must be taken on designs to ensure that the ideas can be implemented in terms of both construction techniques and materials.
It is also important to note that the construction of all building structures is regulated by specific laws and regulations. These laws, regulations and building requirements vary from one country to another. However, there are internationally recognized rules that control the construction of all structures; for example, tall buildings with more than five floors are required to have lifts or escalators that help people move in the structure. Additionally, there should be a fire protection system to ensure security of users of such structures.
Once construction is ready to begin, preliminary work needs to commence to allow initial works to be carried out, these include the clearing of the work site, a ground survey to asses the ground conditions, setting up of sanitary facilities, water/power supplies and offices and storage areas.
To make a building stronger , constructors must pour mold that contains a grid of rigid steel bars often known as "rebar". Concrete strengthen in this way is called reinforced concrete because the steel gives the concrete extra strength and helps it to withstand tensile as well as compressive forces.The major steps towards building a concrete ground floor slab are:
Step 1:Certification of permission / Building permit
Certification of permission is also know as building permit which is given by local authorities to a builder for construction, enlargement or alter of a building. The requirements for permits vary widely from region to region, though, and the only way you can tell for sure if a permit is required is to call your local building office and describe the work you want to do.
Some regions may require permits for almost every type of work, even building a landscape fence. The decision to require a permit or not often depends on an assessment of the relative risk the work poses to current and future residents of the house.
The procedure to get building permit are as follows:
- Contact your local building office and describe the project you want to do.
- Prepare the permit application, including whatever additional materials may be required.
- Submit the building permit application and pay whatever fees are required.
- As you begin work, post the building permit certificate as required.
- At the designated points during the work, call the inspection office to arrange for an inspector to visit the worksite and review the quality of the work.
- Once the inspector approves the work, displaying of the permit certificate is no longer required.
Step 2: Unearthing or excavation
The work involving in removing soil or rock from a site to form an open face, hole or cavity, using tools, machinery or explosives is known excavation. Excavation work includes:
- open excavations
- pit excavations
- trenches and retaining walls
- shafts and drives.
Step 3: Completing the concrete columns below ground level
Columns normally starts from the foundation which can be padded , rafted or piled cap.For local constructors, setting out work includes establishing the building line and marking out column locations on the profile boards
Which must be established all round the building. After excavation to its required depth the foundation should be blinded according to the drawing specifications.
Step 4: Placing the forms of slabs
When the foundation has been completed and there is a need to continue the structure for the first floor slab, the setting out is needed to be done for the kickers. Here kicker means a supplementary brace, typically installed at angle, that lends support to a wall or pipe or something that would be wobbly without it.
The formwork engineers have the obligation to review and ensure that all formworks are tenable and acceptable before pouring in the concrete.
Step 5: Steel Reinforcement and Installation on the slab
This method states down the systematic procedure for various activities required reinforcement bars to ensure that all works carried out in accordance with the approved drawings and specifications. Tools and equipment required for reinforcement are –
- Cutting / Bending machine
- Spiral Machine
- Hand tools, hand saw, wire cutter, brush, Plier
- Line dory / String
- Measuring tapes
- Calibrated Survey Equipment
Safety of the personnel and properties is to be given prime importance and all the works to be carried out without causing any accidents or property damages. Reinforcing bars involves the following activities.
- Transportation of steel bars
- Fabricating and fixing reinforcement steel.
- Lifting of steel at site
Step 6: installation of MEP services
Mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) consists of three technical work departments that must work together for the success of a project. It includes installation of electrical appliances, piping, etc. all geared towards making the building interior and exterior suitable for habitation. MEP installations are normally designed together, due to the high degree of interaction between them.
The scope of the MEP activity has been extended to include additional systems such as fire protection,, process piping, and telephone/Datacom. Although these additional systems seem to fall under the historical categories of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing, they are most often installed by individual specialty contractors.
Step 7: Get examined with the Engineer/Consultant
After the laying of steel support and MEP harsh ins, there would be an assessment by the engineer or a specialist to look at and affirm if the formats are acceptable and can convey the heap that will be given it.The assessment will likewise stretch out to slab structures to guarantee that they can hold the concrete when poured.
Step 8: Inspection with the Municipality Engineer:
This is time when we get building permit after the municipality engineers gives a green signal of their inspection. As a civil engineer, the municipal engineer also checks for technical issues, operation and political interference in the project.
Step 9: Pouring Concrete:
When everything fits after a series of inspections, the concrete is poured on top of the rods in the slab forms that have already been laid out. Machines like cement mixers and dispensers are used to mix and pour the concrete to form a slab.
Step 10: Curing the slab
Adequate moisture, temperature, and time to allowed to the concrete to achieve the desired drying properties for its intended use is known as curing of the slab. A period of 3 to 7 days needed to strengthen the concrete. There are mostly two ways of curing
First, the surface of the concrete is kept moist by using ponding, spraying/sprinkling, damp sand or damp hessian.
Second, the concrete is covered by polythene sheets to prevents the loss of moisture from the concrete.
This is the way to accomplishing the plan quality, strength, water snugness and wear obstruction. Indeed, all the alluring properties of concrete are improved by appropriate curing.